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Frontier Rockets design cutting-edge technology --- overweight high-speed rocket technology and space radiation technology(FangRuida)

Overloaded rockets and rocket ---- overweight major technology aerospace technology

Overloaded rockets and rocket ---- overweight major technology aerospace technology

 

 

Frontier Rockets design cutting-edge technology --- overweight high-speed rocket technology and space radiation technology(FangRuida)

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

 

Development of heavy or super heavy rocket is a revolution in aerospace science and aerospace technology. To human landing on Mars, Mercury, Jupiter's moons, the traditional rocket has considerable limitations and difficult nature. To the depths of the universe, marching, does not override overweight large rocket as a means of transport, the goal is difficult to achieve. Rocket design and development is not as big and large aerospace competition is not for the heavy weight. Otherwise, this wood upside down, meaningless. Voyage in the universe, only reload or overweight Rocket to undertake this important task. Mars, only it can be achieved. Therefore, the development of heavy-duty rocket rocket overweight imminent. Traditional rockets, miniature nuclear reactors, set-crystalline solar complementary, main mix, undoubtedly

 

--- Human Revolution Universe depths of the universe and to enter Mars, the most powerful thrusters - reload rockets and overweight high-speed rocket. Without which it is difficult to succeed. Traditional chemical rockets and rocket compared to the advantages of new heavy-duty, mature technology, tremendous thrust, whether liquid solid rocket has great prospects to develop. However, the chemical fuel storage is a great question, blindly heightening bold rocket structure size, and preferably not the best solution. Moreover, the human landing on Mars hundreds of millions of kilometers to come and go back and forth, the huge consumption of fuel storage, chemical rockets is difficult to achieve, but also risky, long continuous flight interstellar space, face enormous difficulties. The reality may be the only effective and is overweight rockets and heavy rocket, only this one, no other way. Overloaded rockets and rocket overweight, the preferred fuel in addition to traditional chemical-oxygen engines, is nuclear - miniature nuclear reactors as well as solar energy, electricity and so on. The new rocket design and development of revolution is a revolution in the universe of space technology, the rocket can be polylactic structure - conventional engines and nuclear engines simultaneously, or a main one, the traditional main engine, auxiliary engines, nuclear power; nuclear power or engine etc, chemical auxiliary engines, more practical, safe, reliable, technology is relatively sophisticated, cost is not high. A. design. B. Design C. design. According to calculations simulation, pure chemical fuel rockets heavy rocket fuel needed hundreds of tons of nearly 1,000 tons (from Earth to fly to Mars and return calculation), the new rocket probably only need tens of tons less than one hundred tons. Earth launch takeoff traditional fuels, new energy engine spaceflight, nuclear or other energy sources, combined with a chemical engine flight. Rocket greatly reduce the overall weight, size structure do not have a high, large, thick, heavy. Of course, nuclear engine design and manufacturing should be sound, safe, reliable, non-polluting design, mature technology.

 

 

 

 

 

reactors since a sealing structure, safe, reliable, non-polluting, self-separation device self-destruct mechanisms in case of emergency applies. Overweight rocket can double the overall structure propulsion, but also the main and auxiliary propulsion, using conventional chemical engine thrust at launch, flying earth voyage to switch nuclear power or solar propulsion, but also two-phase propulsion rocket monomeric main structure, attached to the multi-level structure, can be dual structure, key technology and micro-jet nozzles and other nuclear reactors, solar-crystal panels, chemical fuel storage tank is limited. overloaded rocket attached to other equipment voyage, landed tanks, mainly for remote

 

 

 

 

 

Frontier Rockets design cutting-edge technology --- overweight high-speed rocket technology and space radiation technology

 

 

 

Rocket propulsion technology research, space radiation protection material development. Frontier Rockets design cutting-edge technology --- overweight high-speed rocket and space radiation breakthrough design and related manufacturing techniques and crafts.

 

 

 

Rocket propulsion technology research, space radiation protection material development. (1) rocket thrust improvements and technical studies, large heavy-duty large rocket heavy rocket design and manufacturing. (2) radiation is extremely important for human space flight and aerospace and other life on our planet health, work and so on. Therefore, there must be a major aerospace field of space technology breakthroughs, rocket design and design of radiation close to important. Countries in the world have invested a lot of manpower and resources research, a lot of results, is very gratifying. However, any technology has its life cycle, age limitations, you can not let the ancients aircraft design and manufacture of automobiles; Similarly, at this stage of human studies can be designed and manufactured hundreds or even thousands of years after laser spacecraft for human use and the like s things. Mars Jupiter Galaxy only dozens of days time to leap from the earth. A particularly important technology to create will take a long time to accumulate the process, or even thousands of years, will not happen overnight. Ancient zodiac dreams and myths, has undergone a full 5,000 years or even tens of thousands of years can be said to be several hundred thousand years was able to achieve, to become a true reality. Fantasy and science need to create, however, they need appropriate practical step by step, this is the human need to have the strength and wisdom. In the current, heavy rocket technology and radiation protection in the basic technology is difficult to promote the stage, we need serious consideration, repeated studies, solid and steady progress. Especially in aerospace technology inscrutable, technical difficulties related to doubts, even the slightest advance any very arduous. A wide variety of technical solutions a lot, but more practical proven viable technology is not much, aerospace technology high risk and high investment, not indeed of technology validation, only shelved. Who will not easily go in this huge bottomless black hole in white spread the money, even the purely scientific exploration of scientific research and the like. Radiation shielding material, too, in addition to traditional radiation shielding material, is the development of new materials, radiation synthesis of new materials, polymeric materials and polymer lead, titanium and other dimerization complex, as well as radiation protection coatings. Layer structure, the base layer, reinforcing layer, interlayer, the main material radiation, radiation Fucai, isolated layers and the like, including spacecraft design, suit design.

 

Nuclear rocket engine is used by the tremendous heat generated during the fission of nuclear fuel, the propellant is heated to very high temperatures (4000 ℃ above). Thus obtaining the kinetic energy of the propellant, is ejected at high speed from the rear, so as to promote high-speed rocket flight.

 

 

 

Since the nuclear fuel small size, heat, nuclear rocket can achieve light weight, small size and other advantages.

 

 

 

In the past, countries in the world more than the study of nuclear rocket engine called "overheating nuclear jet engine." At its core it is a small size of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuel into fuel elements, arranged in the core. When you start the liquid hydrogen into the core, quickly turned into a few thousand degrees Celsius temperature gas after heating, high-speed jet out from the tail of the rocket, a huge thrust, this engine is relatively easy to implement, it may be more economical than chemical rockets. But because the impulse is not big enough, not as a remote interplanetary navigation tools. But it can play an important role in the universe voyage.

 

 

 

"Plasma extruded core engine" Its heart is a nuclear reactor, but the reactor is not used for heating, but for power. At startup, the Y-shaped vacuum chamber injection Xianxiang propellant (such as hydrogen), then immediately closed up at both ends, and the on-current, so that the propellant is heated to 70 million degrees Celsius. In this case the propellant has become a high-temperature plasma, it is driven by the electromagnetic force, the tail is ejected from the rocket.

 

 

 

"Gas core nuclear engine." It is based on gaseous uranium or plutonium instead of solid fuel, the use of gas fuel fission reaction to release heat from the liquid hydrogen fuel tank is heated to very high temperatures (9000 ℃ above), with a strong push rocket exhaust stream.

 

 

 

"Nuclear explosion vented engine." To launch a small explosion when the indoor inject explosive agents, the use of the enormous pressure generated by a nuclear explosion on the wall to push the rocket forward.

 

 

 

 

 

Laser, nuclear energy, light pressure and antimatter four new propulsion technology, is research and development. At this stage, not enough to enter the development stage.

 

 

 

Currently the vast majority of all vehicles and spacecraft are the use of solid and liquid chemical propulsion, its main drawback is the low energy density. Fuel rocket engine carried to the total weight of more than 90%, so the benefit-cost ratio is low, less secure.

 

 

 

Propulsion, ie long-range emits high-energy laser, spacecraft after a reverse parabolic mirror to focus the heated gas, gas thermal expansion thrust. These projects are still being studied.

 

 

 

Promoting nuclear energy, the use of nuclear energy generated by the reaction was heated working fluid or plasma generation high-speed jet thrust. This corresponds to engage in a small nuclear reactor on an aircraft.

 

Light pressure propulsion, aircraft use this technology as a sailboat, sunlight or other particle stream impinges on windsurfing, sail thrust based on the pressure of light on both sides.

 

 

 

Antimatter propulsion, today's advance technology to promote the highest speed of about 20 kilometers per second, can not achieve interstellar flight. Antimatter propulsion aircraft will be possible to reach the speed of light. The principle is, charged particles in a strong electric field, the ejection speeds approaching the speed of light.

 

 

 

Nuclear rocket engine is used by the tremendous heat generated during the fission of nuclear fuel, the propellant is heated to very high temperatures (4000 ℃ above). Thus obtaining the kinetic energy of the propellant, is ejected at high speed from the rear, so as to promote high-speed rocket flight.

 

 

--- Human Revolution Universe depths of the universe and to enter Mars, the most powerful thrusters - reload rockets and overweight high-speed rocket. Without which it is difficult to succeed. Traditional chemical rockets and rocket compared to the advantages of new heavy-duty, mature technology, tremendous thrust, whether liquid solid rocket has great prospects to develop. However, the chemical fuel storage is a great question, blindly heightening bold rocket structure size, and preferably not the best solution. Moreover, the human landing on Mars hundreds of millions of kilometers to come and go back and forth, the huge consumption of fuel storage, chemical rockets is difficult to achieve, but also risky, long continuous flight interstellar space, face enormous difficulties. The reality may be the only effective and is overweight rockets and heavy rocket, only this one, no other way. Overloaded rockets and rocket overweight, the preferred fuel in addition to traditional chemical-oxygen engines, is nuclear - miniature nuclear reactors as well as solar energy, electricity and so on. The new rocket design and development of revolution is a revolution in the universe of space technology, the rocket can be polylactic structure - conventional engines and nuclear engines simultaneously, or a main one, the traditional main engine, auxiliary engines, nuclear power; nuclear power or engine etc, chemical auxiliary engines, more practical, safe, reliable, technology is relatively sophisticated, cost is not high. A. design. B. Design C. design. According to calculations simulation, pure chemical fuel rockets heavy rocket fuel needed hundreds of tons of nearly 1,000 tons (from Earth to fly to Mars and return calculation), the new rocket probably only need tens of tons less than one hundred tons. Earth launch takeoff traditional fuels, new energy engine spaceflight, nuclear or other energy sources, combined with a chemical engine flight. Rocket greatly reduce the overall weight, size structure do not have a high, large, thick, heavy. Of course, nuclear engine design and manufacturing should be sound, safe, reliable, non-polluting design, mature technology.

 

 

 

Since the nuclear fuel small size, heat, nuclear rocket can achieve light weight and small size.

 

Study abroad more than the nuclear rocket engine called "overheating nuclear jet engine." At its core it is a small size of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuel into fuel elements, arranged in the core. When you start the liquid hydrogen into the core, quickly turned into a few thousand degrees Celsius temperature gas after heating, high-speed jet out from the tail of the rocket, a huge thrust, this engine is relatively easy to implement, it may be more economical than chemical rockets. But because the impulse is not big enough, not as a remote interplanetary navigation tools.

 

 

 

"Plasma extruded core engine" Its heart is a nuclear reactor, but the reactor is not used for heating, but for power. At startup, the Y-shaped vacuum chamber injection Xianxiang propellant (such as hydrogen), then immediately closed up at both ends, and the on-current, so that the propellant is heated to 70 million degrees Celsius. In this case the propellant has become a high-temperature plasma, it is driven by the electromagnetic force, the tail is ejected from the rocket.

 

 

 

"Gas core nuclear engine." It is based on gaseous uranium or plutonium instead of solid fuel, the use of gas fuel fission reaction to release heat from the liquid hydrogen fuel tank is heated to very high temperatures (9000 ℃ above), with a strong push rocket exhaust stream. With such a nuclear rocket engine can shoulder the glorious mission to Mars trip.

 

 

 

"Nuclear explosion vented engine." To launch a small explosion when the indoor inject explosive agents, the use of the enormous pressure generated by a nuclear explosion on the wall to push the rocket forward.

 

 

 

Times.

 

 High-speed heavy rocket principle structure diagram, Fig. Separable manned rocket rocket rocket and cargo (ship), the overall design includes a header *1;

 

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Rocket design development, and manufacturing, professional software is essential. CAD, OpenRocket, SpaceCad, and simulation software, calculation software, three-dimensional drawing software abound. Software and programming for the design development and manufacturing heavy-duty large rocket experiment is also very important. Overloaded rocket rocket overweight due to structural, engine and fuel with traditional chemical rocket engine design and development of chemical fuels have very different, but also extraordinarily complex calculation, therefore, research and development to develop new rocket reload software is imperative, especially dynamic binding is a multi-poly design calculation, more complex.

 

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Enc:Peaceful uses of space technology for the global list of cutting-edge technology transfer projects

 

 

 

* Related mainly for large-scale R & D institutions, manufacturers, aerospace companies of various types

 

* Providing patent class style drawings or technical know-how, structure diagram, etc.

 

* In accordance with the relevant United Nations Peace International Convention on the use of outer space, the transferee shall provide qualified information otherwise not be transferable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

{Technology patented formula provides technical drawings or class structure diagram, technical know-how, science and technology common English language, the transfer fee in US dollars or other international common currency. Within three months after signing the contract or agreement, the delivery of technical and technological entry fee deposit transfer technical drawings simultaneously transfer the transferee. Innocent breach of contract, 70% -80% of the total value of compensation projects, technology should be compensation in full. The transfer of technology may apply for international patents, patent ownership transferee all the transferor no longer enjoy their benefits. Transfer of technology projects to provide electronic and paper drawings each copy in English. Technical consulting fees extra. General reception advice not only for the contracting parties and effective}.

 

Technology Item Technical Code technology transfer fee (US $ billion) generic technology entry fee (US $ billion) technical margin (US $ billion)

 

  1. overloaded rocket 00A054378120 75 15 10

 

2 [.] Anti-radiation technology 00a054389127 50 7

 

  

 

3 [.] Space Syndrome Prevention Technology 00A0543764 38 5

 

   18

 

  1. [space] emergency medical technology 00B0832680 40 2 3

 

[5.] Mars landing aircraft 00A4438963 15 4.5

 

 

 

 

 

              N.S T institute of space technology research firm

 

 

 

                     Add: Geneva Roma

 

 

 

      Bank:

 

 

 

   Contact e-mail or fax

 

 

 

  e-mail:rsalan606@yahoo.com,scott.gf@yahoo.com,fangruida389@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

utilisations pacifiques de la technologie spatiale pour la liste globale des projets de transfert de technologie de pointe

 

 

 

* Connexes principalement pour la R & D des institutions à grande échelle, les fabricants, les entreprises aérospatiales de divers types

 

* Fournir des dessins de style de classe de brevet ou de savoir-faire technique, diagramme de structure, etc.

 

* Conformément à la Convention internationale de la paix des Nations Unies pertinentes sur l'utilisation de l'espace, le cessionnaire doit fournir des informations qualifiées autrement ne pas être transférables.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

{Technology formule brevetée fournit des dessins techniques ou de la structure de classe diagramme, savoir-faire technique, de la science et de la technologie de langue anglaise commune, les frais de transfert en dollars américains ou autre monnaie commune internationale. Dans les trois mois après la signature du contrat ou d'un accord, la livraison des dessins techniques de transfert de dépôt de droit d'entrée techniques et technologiques transférer simultanément le cessionnaire. Innocent violation du contrat, 70% -80% de la valeur totale des projets de compensation, la technologie devrait être une compensation en totalité. Le transfert de technologie peut demander des brevets internationaux, la propriété brevet cessionnaire tout le cédant plus profiter de leurs avantages. Transfert des projets de technologie pour fournir des dessinsélectroniques et de papier chaque copie en anglais. frais de consultation techniques supplémentaires. des conseils de réception général non seulement pour les parties contractantes et efficace}.

 

Technologie Code article technique des frais de transfert de technologie (G $ US) des frais d'entrée de technologie générique (US $ milliards) marge technique (US $ milliards)

 

  1. fusée surchargé00A054378120 75 15 10

 

2 [.] De la technologie anti-rayonnement 00a054389127 50 7

 

  

 

3 [.] La technologie de prévention Syndrome espace 00A0543764 38 5

 

   18

 

technologie médicale 4. [espace] d'urgence 00B0832680 40 2 3

 

[5.] Mars atterrissage des avions 00A4438963 15 4.5

 

 

 

 

 

              N.s T institut du cabinet d'études de la technologie spatiale

 

 

 

                     Ajouter: Genève Roma

 

 

 

      Banque:

 

 

 

   Contact e-mail ou par fax

 

 

 

  E-mail:

 

 

 

 

 

Мирное использование космической техники для глобального списка проектов по передаче передовых технологий

 

 

 

* Связанные в основном для крупномасштабных R & D институтов, производителей, аэрокосмических компаний различного типа

 

* Предоставление чертежей стиля патента класса или технического ноу-хау, структурную диаграмму и т.д.

 

* В соответствии с соответствующей Международной конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций в пользу мира по использованию космического пространства, принимающая сторона должна предоставить квалифицированную информацию в противном случае не будет передаваться.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

{Технология запатентована формула обеспечивает технические чертежи или структуру класса диаграммы, технические ноу-хау, науки и техники общего английского языка, оплата за перевод денег в долларах США или другой международной единой валюты. В течение трех месяцев после подписания договора или соглашения, поставка технических и технологических вступительный взнос депозитным переводом технических чертежей одновременно передавать правопреемника. Иннокентий нарушение договора, 70% -80% от общей стоимости компенсационных проектов, технология должна быть компенсация в полном объеме. Передача технологии может подать заявку на международные патенты, патент собственности правопреемника все поклажедатель больше не пользуются их преимуществами. Передача технологических проектов для предоставления электронных и бумажных чертежей каждую копию на английском языке. Технический консалтинг сборы дополнительно. Общий прием советы не только для договаривающихся сторон и эффективным}.

 

Технология Пункт Технический кодекс Стоимость трансфера технологий (US $ млрд) общая технология вступительный взнос (US $ млрд) технический запас (US $ млрд)

 

  1. [] перегружен ракета 00A054378120 75 15 10

 

2 [.] Anti-радиационная технология 00a054389127 50 7

 

  

 

3 [.] Технология предотвращения Космический синдром 00A0543764 38 5

 

   18

 

  1. [пробел] скорая медицинская техника 00B0832680 40 2 3

 

[5] Марс посадки самолетов 00A4438963 15 4.5

 

 

 

 

 

              N.S T институт космической техники исследовательской фирмы

 

 

 

                     Добавить: Geneva Roma

 

 

 

      Банк:

 

 

 

   Как связаться по электронной почте или по факсу

 

 

 

  Электронная почта:

 

*1:A) rocket

 

(B) front structure (C) of the main structure

 

(D) terminal structure

 

(E) the other part. Of course, it can be integrated design, both passengers and freight, combined.

 

And corresponding schematic are: 1. The main rocket propulsion device attached to traditional fuels Configuration 2. miniature nuclear or ion thruster engine to automatically switch to be high-shaped solar collector plate is arranged and similar jet nozzle switching means expand runs in aerospace. 3. The body of the fuel tank 4. The auxiliary fuel tank storage. 5 multistage rocket hierarchy. 6. The overall structural design of interlocking, overlapping design, to minimize the size and weight of their own. 7. rocket diameter should be maintained at between 8.5 meters -12.7 meters, within rocket lengths up to 89.6 meters -128 meters, its own weight and the maximum load must be a strict conventions, load up to 450 tons -500 tons. Off mass of more than 4,000 tons can be large, space payload between 350-400 tonnes, specific impulse, thrust, etc. within the limits of the take. Constant between 250-350 tons. 7. freight rockets and manned rocket structure, there are many similarities and differences. Manned load control between 54 tons -80 tons of cargo rocket can increase the load, but must comply with the relevant technical specifications. 8. manned rocket (spacecraft) are integral material with radiation, temperature, and other characteristics, living spaces, working spaces, the return capsule landed warehouse, reserve tanks (emergency wrecker and life support systems, health care systems overlap design, reserve tanks versatile, if necessary, its own flight taking off and landing). 8. Special multi-purpose smart suit. 9. The computer program control using rocket duplex programming, technology and equipment to ensure complete interchangeability of alternative replacement properties of the bench. 10. The large heavy-duty rocket complex technical equipment, its weight is large, take-off weight is also very impressive, they are among dozens of tons of load hundreds of tons, payload of at least 350 tonnes above. The overall design of complex, cross, interactive, complex overlapping, sub-segment, subsystem staggered, high-end manufacturing technology requires more perfect. Propulsion systems, control systems, communication systems, operating systems, living systems, security systems, emergency escape systems, medical aid system, radiation protection system, accidental disposal system, arrows first telemetry systems, landing cabin, return capsule systems, etc., many complex both independent and set polymerization, prone to various failures and accidents.

 

 

 

Heavy rocket launch means that with a low capacity, different types of satellites in Earth orbit and different high manned spacecraft, a takeoff thrust of 3,500 tons of low-Earth orbit carrying capacity: 100 tons; geosynchronous orbit carrying capacity: 18 tons; fly to the moon's orbit carrying capacity: 32 tons; fly to Mars and Venus orbit carrying capacity reaches: 28 tons.

 

Super-heavy launch vehicle rocket carrying capacity refers to the proportion of more powerful rockets, super-heavy launch vehicle for a more focused service in near-Earth orbit to the moon's heavy rocket compared to the deep exploration of the universe, such as a manned landing on Mars and probe the solar system planets outside.

 

Using traditional fossil fuels and other auxiliary propulsion, micro nuclear reactor jet nozzle technology or solar collector crystal converter, you can switch control. Traditional chemical-fueled mainly on the ground take-off stage, you can use other propulsion into outer space. Designed with interlocking and automatic switching. To avoid overly complex and cumbersome mechanism, miniature nuclear reactor jet nozzle from a closure sealing system, and with a variety of protective measures and protection equipment, special treatment can be taken in case of emergency. If the configuration set high polymer crystal solar converter, using specially prepared materials. This heavy-duty high-speed rocket complex, chemical fuel storage can be more or less, in addition to sail away from the Earth, can play a major role in micro reactors, nuclear fuel storage capacity of small, less than 1% -3% of the conventional chemical fuel, suitable Astronautical long. In addition, the solar collector crystal transducer can maximize the use of solar energy. This feature is designed primarily large heavy-duty rockets, small rocket thrusters does not require many complex and propellant. Large heavy-duty high-speed rocket, called the giant space rocket 11-12.5 meters in diameter, height of 125 meters between -130 meters, a takeoff weight of 5,000 tons, the maximum load of 150-300 tons of payload 200 tons, suitable for long-distance long flight .. Known universe carrier spacecraft. Integrated high polymer technology, compact cluster system, in particular the use of self-locking miniature neutron source reactor sealing system, safe and reliable pollution, emergency automatic locking and special treatment. Heavy duty, light weight, thrust, energy, security, precision equipment, rockets and spacecraft systems using composite overall design, radiation protection, under-owned emergency medical systems and special critical situations can start backup aircraft (standby rockets) escape and return . After all an ample supply of fuel, can fly continuously for six months or more than a year in space. Giant super-heavy rocket rocket strictly control the slenderness ratio, stiffness ratio, height and diameter is not bigger is better, and to the physical structure, engine configuration, fuel, thrust, specific impulse, load, weight, quality and other technical parameters take-off match

 

In the history of human spaceflight, the most distinguished scientists, including Tsiolkovsky, Robert. Goddard, Hermann. Obert, Croatia Korolev, Glushko, Feng. Braun made a significant contribution to this end and so on. In humans left towards Earth, into space career invaluable rich heritage, affecting future generations, which makes the human begin today to the Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and other stars and vast universe march. Such as rocket technology, regardless of liquid rocket engine, or a solid engine, or a hybrid rocket engine technology not only great scientific value, commercial value is priceless, immeasurable. Rocket technology not only belong to aerospace engineering, but also the most important military frontier research projects. Missile technology and rocket technology are inseparable, but different. In heavy-duty rocket technology and aerospace technology in terms of radiation, respectively, in the commercial value of $ 1.5 trillion and $ 700 billion. (According to the rules and techniques of international trade market valuation, the civil provisions of the peaceful uses of outer space, the value is not less than the above price valuation and technology transfer). The core technology of key technologies, we can see the importance of rocket technology and sophisticated, the profits to be overlooked. According to global statistics rocket engine manufacturers, rocket engines and rocket annual sales of about hundreds of billions or even trillions of dollars. Lockheed. Martin company, for example:

 

 

 

 

 

NASA "Saturn 5" rocket is a rocket family, "Big Mac", the level 3 rocket in the late 1960s and early 1970s, has been used in the NASA moon. Like "Ares IX" rocket "Saturn 5" rocket is also from Florida's Kennedy Space Center launch, its height is 110 meters (363 feet), the rocket can carry 45 tons of goods sent to the moon, or carrying 120 tons of goods to the Earth's orbit.

 

"Saturn 5" rocket fuel in a completely filled state ready to launch, a total weight of 3 million kilograms (6.5 million lbs).

 

 

 

 China's "Long March" is also No. 3 A three liquid rocket booster, a secondary conventional fuel, the third stage of hydrogen oxygen fuel. The third stage by a 2.25 m diameter increased to 3 meters, and increase the tank length, the propellant from 8.2 tons to 17.6 tons. Total takeoff weight of 240 tons, a takeoff thrust of 300 tons, which synchronous transfer orbit carrying capacity from 1.4 tons to 2.6 tons.

 

  R & D focus and cutting-edge aerospace technology sector today include large and giant rockets and heavy load and other problems of radiation direction. United States and Russia and other Central European countries start their own design and development of large and giant rocket success. Whether manned or unmanned flight, heavy-duty high-speed large rocket rocket rocket overweight and related technologies is essential, second to none, it is the leader in space technology ahead of God. No matter how large, the basic use of conventional fuels, hydrogen oxygen fuel and other chemical-based. But in the long distance flight, tank volume is bound to increase, propellant storage capacity also increases. If to Mars and return to Earth, storage tanks also need more fuel propellant, the rocket is bound to increase its own weight. In this case, increasing the diameter of the rocket, height also increased significantly. Not the bigger the higher the better, exceeding the limit is not conducive to the voyage, but also easily lead to a variety of security failures flight accidents, causing the arrow crash tragedy. Especially a human into the depths of the universe, continuous flight a year or so, hundreds of millions or billions of kilometers, small rockets and rocket ships load hardly reach. Hundreds of tons of conventional fuel storage needs, it is difficult to achieve, accident prone. Therefore, the development of new heavy-duty rocket to strictly abide by its rules, can not be arbitrarily created. Otherwise, the consequences could be disastrous.

 

 

 

Using traditional fossil fuels and other auxiliary propulsion, micro nuclear reactor jet nozzle technology (nuclear energy conversion device), or a solar collector crystal converter, you can switch control. Traditional chemical-fueled mainly on the ground take-off stage, you can use other propulsion into outer space. Designed with interlocking and automatic switching. To avoid overly complex and cumbersome mechanism, miniature nuclear reactor jet nozzle from a closure sealing system, and with a variety of protective measures and protection equipment, special treatment can be taken in case of emergency. If the configuration set high polymer crystal solar converter, using specially prepared materials. This heavy-duty high-speed rocket complex, chemical fuel storage can be more or less, in addition to sail away from the Earth, can play a major role in micro reactors, nuclear fuel storage capacity of small, less than 1% of conventional chemical fuel, suitable for long universe sailing. In addition, the solar collector crystal transducer can maximize the use of solar energy. This feature is designed primarily large heavy-duty rockets, small rocket thrusters does not require many complex and propellant. Large heavy-duty high-speed rocket, called the giant space, structure, size rocket 11-12.5 meters in diameter, height of 125 meters between -130 meters, a takeoff weight of 5,000 tons, the maximum load of 150-300 tons of payload 200 tons or more, astronauts can take 5-15 people, the standard crew of seven. Suitable for long distance flight. Of course, the size of the structure can be relatively reduced or greatly reduced, mainly determined according to the type of fuel and engine. If the main engine for the nuclear engine, and other new propulsion, structure size can be changed. Because no large-capacity storage tank and multi-stage rocket multi-split structure, which greatly reduce the structure of the device components. Nuclear-based, conventional propeller propulsion main auxiliary flight. The key technology is the micro-reactors and other propulsion device. In contrast, conventional propulsion based, nuclear and solar auxiliary thrust, is a good choice. Options and permutations and combinations should be determined depending on the circumstances. Large heavy-duty rockets, should be simple, but they simply can not be too simple, otherwise, thrust, specific impulse, that insufficient load. Difficult to complete hundreds of millions of billions of kilometers of continuous space flight. Mars has no such large heavy flagship, it is difficult to succeed. Aircraft carrier known as cosmic spaceship, high-technology dimerization integrated, compact cluster system, in particular the use of self-locking miniature neutron source reactor sealing system, safe and reliable pollution, emergency automatic locking and special treatment. Heavy duty, light weight, thrust, energy, security, precision equipment, rockets and spacecraft systems using composite overall design, radiation protection, under-owned emergency medical systems and special critical situations can start backup aircraft (standby rockets) escape and return . After all an ample supply of fuel, can fly continuously for six months or more than a year in space. It illustrates the schematic diagram of the structure, not the regular design. (Involving the core technology secrets and technical part, it will be omitted. Schematic is to develop large heavy duty main structural principle of the rocket, and the future development of the design and manufacture of new high-speed heavy-duty rockets important part of this stage of aerospace science and technology space, also human landing on Mars, the moon, Venus, Mercury, Jupiter satellite, an important tool for aerospace and transportation.) technical complexity, the essence, but also to maintain the unity of the self-contained cartridge resistance, try to reduce unnecessary structural components, reducing its own weight and the weight of the device, in order to facilitate the universe voyage. Of course, small rocket can Shanfanjiujian without so complicated. Aircraft carrier in space total cost of about $ 30 billion -500 billion. However, it and the space shuttle, the space station is very different, due to extensive use of new carrier space means equipment can be effectively recovered, repeated use, thus greatly reducing the cost and fees. For example, after taking off from Earth after flying in outer space you can cross, direct access to the moon or Mars. After reaching the destination, you can start landing means landing capsule, astronauts and cargo equipment falling to the planet's surface, and then continue the flight or return to Earth. This multistage rocket ships gradual separation of different, and ultimately disposable rocket returned to Earth, leaving only the return capsule after passing through the atmosphere, all the other abandoned in space. VK = Pb g0 Ln [(GT + GJ) / GJ] Tsiolkovsky formula:

 

Where: VK eleven rockets terminal velocity; Pb eleven thrust ratio (specific impulse); effective structural quality GJ-- rocket, including; g0 a ground acceleration of gravity; GT— propellant rocket takeoff load.

 

 

 

Rockets general, leaving only after return to Earth through the atmosphere the return capsule, all the other abandoned in space. Overloaded rocket acceleration orbit and other mainly rely on the powerful thrust and propeller were, therefore, the use of multi-stage rocket separated without too much structure. Space Shuttle main three parts (1) Orbiter: Orbiter is a core part of the space shuttle, the whole system is only manned space shuttle, a reusable part.

 

 

 

(2) solid boosters: the role of the solid boosters boost for less than supplement the main engine thrust. For reuse.

 

 

 

(3) external tank: Space Shuttle main engine is a liquid rocket engine, liquid fuel propellant is liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Mainly applicable to outer space shuttle earth near-Earth space flight landed, and the universe is mainly applied to the carrier long distance space shuttle flight, mainly rocket system, of course, some of the features of both the space shuttle. It is actually a giant rocket reload rockets. Mainly from Earth to other planets distant interplanetary missions, manned or freight, doubles as other uses. Particularly as applied to the moon to Mars and other large heavy-duty vehicles. Shuttle and heavy rockets are not the same, the former near-Earth space flight.

 

 

 

F-1 rocket engine

 

US-developed the world's largest single-chamber liquid rocket engine thrust for the Saturn V rocket, a single thrust of 700 tons of kerosene fuel, liquid oxygen as the oxidant.

 

Detailed data of the F-1:

 

Burning form: open cycle gas generator, liquid - liquid combustion

 

Propellant: Kerosene - liquid oxygen

 

Thrust: sea 690.988 tons

 

Vacuum 793.683 tons

 

Specific impulse: sea level 255.4 seconds (average of 70 engines)

 

Vacuum 304.1 seconds

 

Diameter: 3.645 m

 

Length: 5.598 m

 

Total weight: 8451.66 kg

 

Work propellant flow: Kerosene: 838.2 kg / sec, liquid oxygen 1784.7 kg / sec

 

Turbopump power: 46,225 kilowatts

 

Design Starts: 20

 

Design Life: 2250 seconds

 

RD-170 rocket engine

 

Russia developed the world's largest thrust liquid rocket engine using liquid oxygen + kerosene, a single thrust of 800 tons (four-chamber, four-nozzle design, it is also suggested that the four engines in parallel, but the share of gas turbine generators and pumps) for energy and the carrier rocket Zenit launch vehicle (RD-171 rocket engine, improved on the RD-170) first stage.

 

RD-191 rocket engine, single thrust of 200 tons, the single-chamber single nozzle, equivalent to RD-170 and then split into two, for russia rocket. RD-191 RD-151 model derivatives were sold to South Korea for the first stage of the Naro-1.

 

RS-68 rocket engine

 

US-developed the world's largest hydrogen-oxygen engines thrust, thrust 300 tons for the Delta IV rocket first stage.

 

RD-0120 rocket engine

 

Russian thrust largest hydrogen oxygen rocket engine, 200-ton thrust for energy carrier rocket main engine.

 

Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

 

US space shuttle main engine, the use of hydrogen oxygen, 200 tons of thrust, the biggest feature is reusable.

 

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

 

The world's largest rocket engine thrust, a single thrust of up to 1,200 tons, can be reused 10 times, tied for the US space shuttle boosters, which improved for the Ares 1 rocket and driving machine Ares 5 rocket boost Bundle device.

 

Saturn S-IC 5 a propellant kerosene / liquid oxygen from the front skirt, liquid oxygen tank, between the tank section, kerosene tank and thrust structures, length 42m, diameter 10m. Tank material is 2219-T87, panel size 3.35m × 7.92m, two Saturn V S-Ⅱ propellant liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen, riveted by the housing segment, hydrogen oxygen tank, thrust structure and other components. three stage S-ⅣB propellant liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen, the front skirt with a total propellant tank bottom, rear apron, interstage section, thrust structures, the length of 17.8m, a diameter of 6.7m. And S-Ⅱ Similarly, the use of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen co-substrate structure. US space shuttle external tank diameter of 8.38m, total length of 47m. Liquid oxygen tank diameter 8.4m, length 16.64m; liquid hydrogen tank diameter 8.4m, length 29.48m, 6.4m long by the four barrel section, five ring bulkheads and ellipsoid around the bottom and so on.

 

Fission class rocket engine whose essence is the miniaturization of nuclear reactors, and placed on the rocket. Nuclear rocket engine fuel as an energy source, with liquid hydrogen, liquid helium, liquid ammonia working fluid. Nuclear rocket engine mounted in the thrust chamber of the reactor, cooling nozzle, the working fluid delivery and control systems and other components. In a nuclear reactor, nuclear energy into heat to heat the working fluid, the working fluid is heated after expansion nozzle to accelerate to the speed of 6500 ~ 11,000 m / sec from the discharge orifice to produce thrust. Long-lived nuclear rocket engine specific impulse (250-1000 seconds), but the technology is complex and is only applicable to long-term spacecraft. This engine due to nuclear radiation protection, exhaust pollution, reactor control and efficient heat exchanger design and other issues not resolved,

 

 

 

Nuclear fusion rocket engine is considered to be the most potential to achieve within the solar system flying rocket engine, similar to its principles and chemical rocket, just three fuel into hydrogen isotope deuterium, tritium and helium, nuclear fusion reactions release tremendous energy to push the rocket, compared to several orders of magnitude higher than chemical rockets.

 

Since the substance produced by fusion nuclear reactions is neutrons, protons and helium, and therefore can not be used within the Earth's atmosphere, but the space itself is full of all kinds of radiation, so there is nothing wrong in the use of space. Fusion rocket engine main problem to be solved is the high-temperature materials, ignition and fuel cell technology problems.

 

 

 

 

 

In summary, heavy rocket overweight rocket technology into the depths of the human universe, the most important is the uniqueness of the cutting-edge technology of space vehicles. Mars, Venus, Mercury, Jupiter satellite, the Moon, flying out of the solar system, the galaxy fly without it simply can not be done and achieved. Mars and the Moon is the transformation of the impossible. Traditional chemical propellant obvious advantages, the technology is relatively mature and complete, indeed the preferred R & D to develop heavy-duty rocket propulsion; however, due to the long flight, fuel storage excessive, long distance flying difficult. And be able to return to Mars is extremely difficult. Therefore, we need a new heavy-duty rocket thrust of research to improve fuel, engine design, nuclear, solar and other uses or closely integrated to become a very important source of propulsion. Therefore, in the present case, heavy rockets and rocket propulsion overweight is a combination of both, or preferably. Earth takeoff stage of flight from the traditional engine start, after a long-distance flight flying planet or solar engine can use nuclear propulsion engines. When returned to Earth, Mini nuclear reactors can also be sealing abandoned the camera back, the Rockets may revoke or partially recovered in the ground.

 

 

 

 

 

Rocket design, including hardware and software, computer control program a lot, especially in heavy-duty rocket design, manufacture, test, test, process control is very important.

 

Programming, for example,

 

-module (mathStuff).

 

-export ([factorial / 1, area / 1]).

 

factorial (0) -> 1;

 

factorial (N) when N> 0-> N * factorial (N-1).

 

% Calculated area of the square, the first match square parameter tuple

 

area ({square, Side}) ->

 

     Side * Side;

 

% Calculated area of a circle, matching circle

 

area ({circle, Radius}) ->

 

    % Almost :-)

 

    3 * Radius * Radius;

 

% Calculated area of a triangle using Heron's formula, matching triangle

 

area ({triangle, A, B, C}) ->

 

    S = (A + B + C) / 2,

 

math: sqrt (S * (S-A) * (S-B) * (S-C